The College of Life Sciences

Koide, Roger

Biology

Email: 4vskivosmhiDf}y2ihy$  (Email Form)

Website: http://koidelab.byu.edu

4031  LSB
Provo, UT 84602
(801) 422-6650

Professor

Curriculum Vitae

 Biography
Professor of Biology, Brigham Young University 2012 - present
Professor of Horticultural Ecology, Penn State University 1996-2012
Associate Professor of Horticultural Ecology, Penn State University 1992-1996
Assistant Professor of Biology, Penn State University 1986-1992

Postdoctoral research, Stanford University 1984-1986
PhD in Botany, University of California 1984
BA in Biology, Pomona College 1980, Magna Cum Laude
 Teaching Interests
Principles of Biology
Biological Diversity of Plants
Plant Ecology
 Research Interests
Dr. Koide has interests in the physiological, population and community ecology of plants and associated fungi, including mycorrhizal fungi. He works in both natural and agricultural ecosystems.

Key words:
Mycorrhiza
Botany
Plant Ecology
Mycology
Fungal Ecology
Community Ecology
Agricultural Ecology
Biofuels
Biochar
Soil Carbon Sequestration
Soil Microbial Ecology
 Education
  • PhD, Botany, University of California, Berkeley, 1984
  • BA, Biology, Pomona College, 1980
 Experience

Professional
  • Professor, Department of Biology, Brigham Young University, 2012-Present
  • Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, Professor, The Pennsylvania State University, 1986-2012
  • Teaching Assistant, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, 1981-1984

Academic - Post-Secondary
  • Postdoctoral Affiliate, Stanford University, 1984-1986
  • Research Assistant in Botany, University of California, Berkeley, 1982-1984

 Memberships
  • Board of Advisors to the Editors, New Phytologist, 2002-Present
  • Ad hoc reviewer for various private foundations including The National Geographic Society, The American Floral Endowment, etc., 1993-Present
  • Ad hoc reviewer for various international granting agencies including NSERC (Canada), Israel Science Foundation, National Environment Research Council (UK), Japan Ministry of Education, etc., 1986-Present
  • Ad hoc reviewer for various international journals, 1986-Present
  • Ad hoc reviewer for various NSF competitive grants programs, 1986-Present
  • Ad hoc reviewer for various USDA competitive grants programs, 1986-Present
  • Panel Member, NSF Ecosystem Science Panel, 2013-2013
  • Panel Member, NSF, Ecosystem Science Panel, 2003-2007
  • Panel member, USDA NRI Managed Ecosystems (declined, too busy), 2003-2003
  • Panel Member, USDA Soils and Soil Biology, NRI Grants Program, 2003-2003
  • Panel member, USDA NRI Soils and Soil Biology (declined, too busy), 2001-2001
  • Panel Member, USDA Soils and Soil Biology. NRI Grants Program, 1998-1998
 Honors and Awards
  • Phi Beta Kappa : Member, Phi Beta Kappa
  • BYU ORCA : ORCA grant to Monica Boyer
  • Soil Ecology Society : Second Prize, Oral Presentations (to student Chris Fernandez)
  • Council for the International Exchange of Scholars : Fulbright Senior Scholar
  • National Science Foundation : Presidential Young Investigator Awardee
  • ARCS, Achievements Rewards for College Scientists : ARCS Foundation Scholarship
  • Pomona College : Tileston Prize in Physics
  • Pomona College : Honors at Entrance
  • National Merit Scholarship Corporation : National Merit Scholar
 Courses Taught

Winter 2014
  • BIO 455: Plant Ecology Section 001
Fall 2013
  • BIO 220B: Biological Diversity: Plants Section 001, 002
  • BIO 494R: Mentored Research Section 013
Winter 2013
  • LFSCI 494R: Mentored Research Section 006
Fall 2012
  • BIO 100: Principles of Biology Section 011

Selected Publications
Journal Articles

Koide RT, Nguyen B, Skinner RH, Dell CJ, Peoples MM, Adler PR, Drohan P. Biochar amendment of soil improves resilience to climate change. Global Change Biology Bioenergy. 2014 Jun:1-8.

Dickie I, Koide RT. Deep thoughts on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. New Phytologist. 2014 Jan;201:1083-1085.

Nguyen G, Koide RT, Drohan P, Skinner RH, Dell C, Adler P, Nord A. Turnover of soil carbon pools following addition of switchgrass-derived biochar to four soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2014 Jan. <website>

Fernandez CW, Koide RT. The function of melanin in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum geophilum under water stress. Fungal Ecology. 2013 Nov;6(6):479-486.

Koide RT, Fernandez CW, Malcolm GM. Determinig place and process: functional traits of ectomycorrhizal fungi that affet both community structure and ecosystem function. New Phytologist. 2013 Oct;201:433-439.

Fernandez CW, McCormack ML, Pritchard SG, Koide RT. On the persistence of Cenococcum geophilum ectomycorrhizas and its implications for forest carbon and nutrient cycles. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2013 Oct;65:141-143.

Koide RT, Peoples MS. Behavior of Bradford-reactive substances is consistent with predictions for glomalin. Applied Soil Ecology. 2013 Jan;63:8-14.

Koide RT, Peoples MS, Matheson ET. Variation in soil carbon under contrasting biodiesel feedstock crops. Pedobiologia. 2013 Jan;56(2):61-67.

Peoples MS, Koide RT. Considerations in the storage of soil samples for enzyme activity analysis. Applied Soil Ecology. 2012 Nov;62:98-102.

Koide RT, Peoples M. On the nature of temporary yield loss in maize following canola. Plant and Soil. 2012 Nov;360:259-269.

Fernandez CW, Koide RT. The role of chitin in the decomposition of ectomycorrhizal fungal litter. Ecology. 2012 Jan;93(1):24-28.

Koide RT, Fernandez C, Petprakob K. General principles in the community ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Annals of Forest Science. 2011 Jan;68:45-55.

Koide RT, Fernandez CW, Peoples MS. Can ectomycorrhizal colonization of Pinus resinosa roots affect their decomposition?. New Phytologist. 2011;191:508-514.

Koide RT, Petprakob K, Peoples M. Quantitative analysis of biochar in field soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 2011;43:1563-1568.

Hoeksema JD, Chaudhary VB, Gehring CA, Johnson NC, Karst J, Koide RT, Pringle A, Zabinski C, Bever JD, Moore JC, et al. A meta-analysis of context-dependency in plant response to inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi. Ecology Letters. 2010;13:394-407.

Sharda JN, Koide RT. Exploring the role of root anatomy in P-mediated control of colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Botany. 2010;88:165-173.

Malcolm GM, López-Gutiérrez JC, Koide RT. Little evidence for respiratory acclimation by microbial communities to short-term shifts in temperature in red pine (Pinus resinosa) litter. Global Change Biology. 2009;15:2485–2492.

Koide RT, Malcolm GM. N concentration controls decomposition rates of different strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Fungal Ecology. 2009;2:197-202.

Malcolm GM, Lopez-Guttierez JC, Koide RT. Temperature sensitivity of respiration differs among forest floor layers in a Pinus resinosa plantation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2009;41:1075-1079.

Malcolm GM, López-Gutiérrez JC, Koide RT, Eissenstat DM. Acclimation to temperature and temperature sensitivity of metabolism by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Global Change Biology. 2008;14:1169-1180.

Sharda JN, Koide RT. Can hypodermal passage cell distribution limit root penetration by mycorrhizal fungi?. New Phytologist. 2008;180:696-701.

Koide RT, Sharda JN, Herr JR, Malcolm GM. Ectomycorrhizal fungi and the biotrophy-saprotrophy continuum. New Phytologist. 2008;178:230-233.

López-Gutiérrez JC, Malcolm GM, Koide RT, Eissenstat DM. Ectomycorrhizal fungi from Alaska and Pennsylvania: adaptation of mycelial respiratory response to temperature?. New Phytologist. 2008;180:741-744.

Lekberg Y, Koide RT, Twomlow SJ. Effect of agricultural management practices on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal abundance in low-input cropping systems of southern Africa: A case study from Zimbabwe. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 2008;44:917-923.

Lekberg Y, Koide RT. Effect of soil moisture and temperature during fallow on survival of contrasting isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Botany. 2008;86:1117-1124.

Koide RT, Shumway DL, Xu B, Sharda JN. On temporal partitioning of a community of ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist. 2007;147:420-429.

Lekberg Y, Koide RT, Rohr JR, Aldrich-Wolfe L, Morton JB. Role of niche restrictions and dispersal in the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities. Journal of Ecology. 2007;95:95-105.

Johnson NC, Hoeksema JD, Bever JD, Chaudhary VB, Gehring C, Klironomos J, Koide RT, Miller RM, Moore J, Moutoglis P, et al. From lilliput to brobdingnag: extending models of mycorrhizal function across scales. BioScience. 2006;56:889-900.

Wu T, Kabir Z, Koide RT. A possible role for saprotrophic microfungi in the N nutrition of ectomycorrhizal Pinus resinosa. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2005;37:965-975.

Lekberg Y, Koide RT. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobia, available soil P and nodulation of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in Zimbabwe. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2005;100:143-148.

Koide RT, Xu B, Sharda J. Contrasting belowground views of an ectomycorrhizal fungal community. New Phytologist. 2005;166:251-262.

Koide RT, Xu B, Sharda J, Lekberg Y, Ostiguy N. Evidence of species interactions within an ectomycorrhizal fungal community. New Phytologist. 2005;165:305-316.

Yekberg Y, Koide RT. Is plant performance limited by abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi? A meta-analysis of studies published between 1988 and 2003. New Phytologist. 2005;168:189-204.

Jonsson LM, Dighton J, Lussenhop J, Koide RT. The effect of mixing ground leaf litters to soil on the development of pitch pine ectomycorrhizal and soil arthropod communities in natural soil microcosm systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2005;38:134-144.

Koide RT, Mosse B. A history of research on arbuscular mycorrhiza. Mycorrhiza. 2004;14:145-163.

Koide RT, Wu T. Ectomycorrhizas and retarded decomposition in a Pinus resinosa plantation. New Phytologist. 2003;158:401-407.

Wu T, Sharda JN, Koide RT. Exploring interactions between saprotrophic microbes and ectomycorrhizal fungi using a protein-tannin complex as an N source by red pine (Pinus resinosa). New Phytologist. 2003;159:131-139.

Kabir Z, Koide RT. Effect of autumn and winter mycorrhizal cover crops on soil properties, nutrient uptake and yield of maize in Pennsylvania, USA. Plant and Soil. 2002;238:205-215.

Koide RT, Dickie IA. Effects of mycorrhizal fungi on plant populations. Plant and Soil. 2002;244:307-317.

Dickie IA, Koide RT, Steiner KC. Influences of established trees on mycorrhizas, nutrition, and growth of Quercus rubra seedlings. Ecological Monographs. 2002;72:505-521.

Koide RT, Dickie IA. Kit-based, low-toxicity method for extracting and purifying fungal DNA from ectomycorrhizal roots. BioTechniques. 2002;32:52-56.

Poulton JL, Bryla D, Koide RT, Stephenson AG. Mycorrhizal infection and high soil phosphorus improve vegetative growth and the female and male functions in tomato. New Phytologist. 2002;154:255-264.

Dickie IA, Xu B, Koide RT. Vertical niche differentiation of ectomycorrhizal hyphae in soil as shown by T-RFLP analysis. New Phytologist. 2002;156:527-535.

Nakano A, Takahashi K, Koide RT, Kimura M. Determination of the nitrogen source for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by 15N application to soil and plants. Mycorrhiza. 2001;10:267-273.

Poulton JL, Koide RT, Stephenson AG. Effects of mycorrhizal infection and soil phosphorus availability on in vitro and in vivo pollen performance in Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae). American J Botany. 2001;151:1786-1793.

Poulton JL, Koide RT, Stephenson AG. Effects of mycorrhizal infection, soil phosphorus availability and fruit production on the male function in two cultivars of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Plant Cell and Environment. 2001;24:841-849.

Koide RT, Kabir Z. Nutrient economy of red pine is affected by interactions between Pisolithus tinctorius and other forest floor microbes. New Phytologist. 2001;150:179-188.

Dickie IA, Koide RT, Fayish AC. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection of Quercus rubra seedlings. New Phytologist. 2001;151:257-264.

Koide RT, Goff MD, Dickie IA. Component growth efficiencies of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. New Phytologist. 2000;148:163-168.

Koide RT, Kabir Z. Extraradical hyphae of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices can hydrolyze organic phosphate. New Phytologist. 2000;148:511-517.

Koide RT. Functional complementarity in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. New Phytologist. 2000;147:233-235.

Koide RT, Shumway DL. On variation in forest floor thickness across four red pine plantations in Pennsylvania, USA. Plant and Soil. 2000;219:57-69.

Koide RT, Shumway DL, Stevens CM. Soluble carbohydrates of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) mycorrhizas and mycorrhizal fungi. Mycological Research. 2000;104:834-840.

Besmer YL, Koide RT. Effect of mycorrhizal colonization and phosphorus on ethylene production of snapdragon flowers. Mycorrhiza. 1999;9:161-166.

Koide RT, Dickie IA, Goff MD. Phosphorus deficiency, plant growth and the phosphorus efficiency index. Functional Ecology. 1999;13:733-736.

Koide RT, Landherr LL, Besmer YL, Detweiler JM, Holcomb EJ. Strategies for mycorrhizal inoculation of six annual bedding plant species. HortScience. 1999;37:1217-1220.

Kabir Z, Koide RT. The effect of dandelion or a cover crop on mycorrhiza inoculum potential, soil aggregation and yield of maize. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 1999;78:167-174.

Koide RT, Suomi L, Stevens CM, McCormick L. Interactions between needles of Pinus resinosa (Ait.) and ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist. 1998;140:539-547.

Addy HD, Boswell EP, Koide RT. Low temperature acclimation and freezing resistance of extraradical VA mycorrhizal hyphae. Mycological Research. 1998;102:582-586.

Bryla DR, Koide RT. Mycorrhizal response of two tomato genotypes relates to their ability to acquire and utilize phosphorus. Annals of Botany. 1998;82:849-857.

Heppell KB, Shumway DL, Koide RT. The effect of mycorrhizal infection of Abutilon theophrasti on competitiveness of offspring. Functional Ecology. 1998;12:171-175.

Dickie IA, Koide RT, Stevens CM. Tissue density and growth response of ectomycorrhizal fungi to nitrogen source and concentration. Mycorrhiza. 1998;8:145-148.

Boswell EP, Koide RT, Shumway DL, Addy HD. Winter wheat cover cropping, VA mycorrhizal fungi and maize growth and yield. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment. 1998;67:55-65.

Lau TC, Lu X, Koide RT, Stephenson AG. Effects of soil fertility and mycorrhizal infection on pollen production and pollen grain size of Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae). Plant Cell and Environment. 1995;18:169-177.

Snapp S, Koide RT, Lynch J. Exploitation of localized phosphorus-patches by common bean roots. Plant and Soil. 1995;177:211-218.

Koide RT, Lu X. On the cause of offspring superiority conferred by maternal mycorrhizal infection. New Phytologist. 1995;131:435-441.

Shumway DL, Koide RT. Size and reproductive inequality in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal populations of Abutilon theophrasti. Journal of Ecology. 1995;83:613-620.

Koide RT, Schreiner RP. Alteration of nyctinastic leaf movement of Abutilon theophrasti Medic. (Malvaceae) by mycorrhizal infection. Functional Ecology. 1994;8:384-388.

Koide RT, Shumway DL, Mabon SA. Mycorrhizal fungi and reproduction of field populations of Abutilon theophrasti Medic. (Malvaceae). New Phytologist. 1994;126:123-130.

Smith SE, Gianninazzi-Pearson V, Koide RT. Nutrient transport in mycorrhizas: structure, physiology and consequences for efficiency of the symbiosis. Plant and Soil. 1994;159:103-114.

Shumway DL, Koide RT. Reproductive responses to mycorrhizal colonization of Abutilon theophrasti Medic. plants grown for two generations in the field. New Phytologist. 1994;128:219-224.

Shumway DL, Koide RT. Seed preferences of Lumbricus terrestris L. Applied Soil Ecology. 1994;1:11-15.

Lu X, Koide RT. The effects of mycorrhizal infection on components of plant growth and reproduction. New Phytologist. 1994;128:211-218.

Shumway DL, Koide RT. Within season variability in mycorrhizal benefit to reproduction in Abutilon theophrasti Medic. Plant Cell and Environment. 1994;17:821-827.

Schreiner RP, Koide RT. Antifungal compounds from roots of mycotrophic and nonmycotrophic plant species. New Phytologist. 1993;123:99-105.

Schreiner R, Koide RT. Mustards, mustard oils and mycorrhizas. New Phytologist. 1993;123:107-113.

Sanders I, Koide RT, Shumway DL. Mycorrhizal stimulation of plant parasitism. Canadian Journal of Botany. 1993;71:1143-1146.

Stanley MR, Koide RT, Shumway DL. Mycorrhizal symbiosis increases growth, reproduction and recruitment of Abutilon theophrasti Medic. in the field. Oecologia. 1993;94:30-35.

Sanders I, Koide RT. Nutrient acquisition and community structure in co-occurring mycotrophic and nonmycotrophic old field annuals. Functional Ecology. 1993;8:77-84.

Schreiner RP, Koide RT. Stimulation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by mycotrophic and nonmycotrophic plant root systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1993;59:2750-2752.

Schreiner R, Koide RT. Streptomycin reduces plant response to mycorrhizal infection. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 1993;25:1131-1133.

Koide RT, Lu X. Mycorrhizal infection of wild oats: maternal effects on offspring growth and reproduction. Oecologia. 1992;90:218-226.

Koide RT, Schreiner RP. The regulation fo the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 1992:557-581.

Lu X, Koide RT. Avena fatua L. seed and seedling nutrient dynamics as influenced by mycorrhizal infection of the maternal generation. Plant, Cell and Environment. 1991;14:931-939.

Koide RT. Density-dependent response to mycorrhizal infection in Abutilon theophrasti Medic. Oecologia. 1991;85:389-395.

Koide RT, Li M. Mycorrhizal fungi and the nutrient ecology of three oldfield annual plant species. Oecologia. 1991;85:403-412.

Haynes B, Koide RT, Elliott G. Phosphorus uptake and utilization in wild and cultivated oats (Avena spp). Journal of Plant Nutrition. 1991;14:1105-1118.

Koide RT. Tansley Review: Nutrient supply, nutrient demand and plant response to mycorrhizal infection. New Phytologist. 1991:365-386.

Huenneke LF, Hamburg SP, Koide RT, Mooney HA, Vitousek PM. Effects of soil resources on plant invasion and community structure in Californian serpentine grassland. Ecology. 1990;71:478-491.

Koide RT, Li M. On host regulation of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. New Phytologist. 1990;114:59-64.

Lewis J, Koide RT. Phosphorus supply, mycorrhizal infection and offspring vigor in two annual plant species. Functional Ecology. 1990;4:695-702.

Bryla D, Koide RT. Regulation of reproduction in wild and cultivated Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection. Oecologia. 1990;84:74-81.

Bryla D, Koide RT. The role of mycorrhizal infection in the growth and reproduction of wild vs. cultivated plants. II. Eight wild accessions and two cultivars of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Oecologia. 1990;84:82-92.

Koide RT, Li M. Appropriate controls for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza research. New Phytologist. 1989;111:35-46.

Koide RT, Elliott G. Cost, benefit and efficiency of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Functional Ecology. 1989;3:252-255.

Koide RT, Huenneke LF, Hamburg S, Mooney HA. Effects of fungicide, phosphorus and nitrogen applications on annual serpentine grassland communities. Functional Ecology. 1988;2:335-344.

Koide RT, Li M, Lewis J, Irby C. Role of mycorrhizal infection on growth and reproduction of wild vs. cultivated plants. I. Wild vs. cultivated oats. Oecologia. 1988;77:537-542.

Koide RT, Huenneke LF, Mooney HA. Gopher mound soil reduces growth and affects ion uptake of two annual grassland species. Oecologia. 1987;72:284-290.

Koide RT, Mooney HA. Revegetation of serpentine substrates: response to phosphate application. Environmental Management. 1987;11:563-567.

Koide RT, Mooney HA. Spatial variation in inoculum potential of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi caused by formation of gopher mounds. New Phytologist. 1987;107:173-182.

Koide RT. The effect of VA mycorrhizal infection and phosphorus status on sunflower hydraulic and stomatal properties. Journal of Experimental Botany. 1985;36:1087-1098.

Koide RT. The nature and location of variable hydraulic resistance in Helianthus annuus L. (Sunflower). Journal of Experimental Botany. 1985;36:1430-1440.

Koide RT. The nature of growth depressions in sunflower caused by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection. New Phytologist. 1985;99:449-462.

Book Chapters

Koide RT. Context-dependent interaction hierarchies and the organization of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. In: B. Hock, editor. The Mycota, Vol. 9, Second Edition (Fungal Associations). Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2012. vol. 9 p. 181-196.

Besmer YL, Koide RT, Twomlow SJ. Role of phosphorus and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nodulation and shoot nitrogen content in groundnut and lablab bean. In: Waddington SR, editor. Grain legumes and green manures for soil fertility in southern Africa: Taking stock of progress. 2003. p. 43-46

Koide RT, Dickie IA. Mycorrhizal fungi and plant populations. In: Smith SE & Smith A, editor. Diversity and integration in mycorrhizal symbioses. Dordrecht: Kluwer; 2002.

Koide RT. Mycorrhizal symbiosis and plant reproduction. In: Y Kapulnik & DD Douds, editor. Arbuscular mycorrhizas: physiology and function. Dordrecht: Kluwer; 2000. p. 19-46

Koide RT, Shumway DL. Characterizing effects of mycorrhizal fungi on plant population structure. In: A Varma, editor. Mycorrhiza Manual. 1998. p. 65-75

Koide RT, Sanders I, Shumway DL. Diversity and structure in natural communities: the role of the mycorrhizal symbiosis. In: A Varma, B Hock, editors. Mycorrhiza: Structure, Function, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. 2nd ed. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 1998.

Koide RT. Ecological considerations of mycorrhizal symbioses. In: JP Lynch, J Deikman, editors. Phosphorus in plant biology: regulatory roles in molecular, cellular, organismic, and ecosystem processes. Rockville, MD: American Society of Plant Physiologists; 1998. p. 17-25

Stephenson AG, Poulton JL, Lau T, Koide RT. Effects of soil phosphorus level and mycorrhizal infection on the male function of plants. In: JP Lynch, J Deikman, editors. Phosphorus in Plant Biology: Regulatory Roles in Molecular, Cellular, Organismic, and Ecosystem Processes. Rockville, MD: American Society of Plant Physiologists; 1998. p. 52-70

Koide RT, Suomi L, Berghage R. Tree-fungus interactions in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. In: JT Romeo, KR Downum, R Verpoorte, editors. Phytochemical Signals and Plant-Microbe Interactions, Recent Advances in Phytochemistry. New York: Plenum Press; 1998. vol. 32 p. 57-70

Koide RT, Boswell EP. Ecophysiology of mycorrhizal roots. In: H Flores, D Eissenstat, J Lynch, editors. Radical Biology: Advances in Perspectives on the Function of Plant Roots. Rockville, MD: American Society of Plant Physiologists; 1997. p. 178-186

Koide RT, Boswell EP, Shumway DL. The effects of winter wheat cover crop on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculum potential. In: H Flores, D Eissenstat, J Lynch, editors. Radical Biology: Advances in Perspectives on the Function of Plant Roots. Rockville, MD: American Society of Plant Physiologists; 1997. p. 509-512

Sanders I, Koide RT, Shumway DL. Community level interactions between plants and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In: A Varma, B Hock, editors. Mycorrhiza: Structure, Function, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 1995. p. 607-626

Smith SE, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Koide RT, Cairney JW. Nutrient transport in mycorrhizas: structure, physiology and consequences for efficiency of the symbiosis. In: AD Robson, LK Abbott, N Malajczuk, editors. Management of Mycorrhizas in Agriculture, Horticulture and Forestry. Dordrecht: Kluwer; 1994. p. 103-113

Koide RT. The physiology of the mycorrhizal plant. In: IC Tommerup, editor. Advances in Plant Pathology, Mycorrhiza: A Synthesis. 1993. vol. 9 p. 33-54

Koide RT, Robichaux R, Morse S, Smith C. Plant water status, hydraulic resistance and capacitance. In: RW Pearcy, JR Ehleringer, HA Mooney, P Rundel, editors. Physiological Plant Ecology: Field Methods and Instrumentation. 1989. p. 161-184

Book Review

Koide RT. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. 2nd ed. SE Smith & DJ Read, editor. 1997. 282 p.

Koide RT. Management of Mycorrhizas in Agriculture, Horticulture and Forestry. AD Robson, LK Abbott, N Malajczuk, editors. 1995. 165 p.

Koide RT. Symbiosis. An Introduction to Biological Associations,V Ahmadjian & S Paracer. 1987. 318-319 p.

Koide RT. The Biology of Symbiosis,DC Smith & AE Douglas. 1987. 197 p.

Presentations

Koide RT, Fernandez C. Determining place and process: functional traits of mycorrhizal fungi. Mycological Society of America annual meeting. Michigan State University. 2014 Jun.

Koide RT. Ecological studies of fungal symbioses. Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota. Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota. 2014 Mar.

Koide RT. The Hidden World of Mycorrhizal Fungi. 2013 Turning a New Leaf,Chesapeake Conservation Landscaping Council. National Conservation Training Center, Shepherdstown, WV. 2013 .

Cheng L, Wei X, Adams T, Li L, Chen W, McCormack ML, DeForest J, Koide RT, Eissenstat DM. Are roots and mycorrhizal fungi complementary in nutrient foraging of tree species?. Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America. Minneapolis, MN. 2013 .

Fernandez C, Koide RT. Towards a mechanistic understanding of ectomycorrhizal litter decomposition dynamics. Annual Meeting, Soil Ecology Society. Rutgers University, Camden, NJ. 2013 .

Haider K, Malcolm G, Koide RT, Karsten H. Effects of cropping system management on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Annual Meeting, Tri-Societies (ASA, SSSA, CSSA). Tampa, FL. 2013 .

Koide RT. Plants and War. Lecture Series, Maryland Horticultural Society. Baltimore, MD. 2013 .

Skinner RH, Nguyen BT, Koide RT, Drohan P, Dell CJ, Adler PR, Nord AN. Agronomic and Environmental Consequences for Switchgrass Grown On Biochar Amended Soils. Tri-Societies (ASA, SSSA, CSSA) annual meeting. Tampa, FL. 2013 .

Dell C, Koide RT, Skinner H, Adler P, Drohan P, Nguyen B, Nord A. Use of biochar in a switchgrass bioenergy system to ameliorate marginal soil conditions. Annual Meeting, Tri-Societies (ASA, CSSA, SSSA). Cincinnati, OH. 2012 Oct.

Nguyen B, Koide RT, Drohan P, Skinner H, Dell C, Adler P, Nord A. Effects of switchgrass-derived biochar addition on turnover of soil carbon pools. Fourth IBI International Biochar Conference. Beijing, China. 2012 Sep.

Fernandez C, Koide RT. Melanin: a functional trait conferring tolerance to water stress in ectomycorrhizal fungi. Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America. Portland, OR. 2012 .

Fernandez C, Koide RT. The role of chitin in the decomposition of ectomycorrhizal fungal litter. Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America. Austin, Texas. 2011 .

Koide RT. Rubber and World War. College of Life Sciences, Tottori University. Koyamachō-Minami, Japan. 2011 .

Koide RT. Studies of mycorrhizal symbioses. Department of Biology, BYU. Provo, UT. 2011 .

Koide RT. The Hidden World of Mycorrhizal Fungi. Lecture Series, Maryland Horticultural Society. Baltimore, MD. 2011 .

Koide RT. Community ecology of mycorrhizal fungi. College of Life Sciences, Zhejian University. China. 2010 .

Koide RT. An incomplete history of research on arbuscular mycorrhiza. Department of Biology, University of Illinois, Chicago. Chicago, IL. 2010 .

Koide RT. An incomplete history of research on arbuscular mycorrhiza. Department of Microbial Ecology, Lund University. Lund, Sweden. 2010 .

Koide RT. The Hidden World of Mycorrhizal Fungi. Gardenwise Conference, Penn State University. York, PA. 2010 .

Hoeksema JD, Chadhary VB, Johnson NC, Karst J, Koide RT, Pringle A, Zabinski CA, Bever JD, Moore JC, Wilson GW, et al. Context-dependency in plant response to mycorrhizal fungi: A meta-analysis of the mutualism-parasitism continuum. Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America. Albuquerque, NM. 2009 .

Koide RT. General concepts of functional ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. College of Life Sciences, Tottori University. Koyamachō-Minami, Japan. 2009 .

Koide RT. The Hidden World of Mycorrhizal Fungi. Native Plants in the Landscape Conference. Millersville University, PA. 2009 .

Koide RT. Soil Carbon of Sequestration of Contrasting Oilseed Crops. Northeast Renewable Energy Conference. State College, PA. 2009 .

Koide RT. General concepts of functional ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. Workshop on Structure and Function in Ectomycorrhizal Communities, INRA, Nancy, France. Nancy, France. 2009 .

Malcolm GM, López-Gutiérrez JC, Koide RT, Eissenstat DM. Respiratory acclimation to temperature by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America. Milwaukee, WI. 2008 .

Koide RT. Community ecology of mycorrhizal fungi. Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia. University of Georgia, Athens, GA. 2008 .

Malcolm GM, López-Gutiérrez JC, Koide RT, Eissenstat DM. Respiratory acclimation to temperature by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Ecology Lunchtime Series, Cambridge University. Cambridge, UK. 2008 .

Koide RT. Mycorrhizal Fungi: Hidden Friends of Plants. Native Plants in the Landscape Conference. Millersville University, PA. 2008 .

Malcolm GM, López-Gutiérrez JC, Koide RT, Eissenstat DM. Adaptation and acclimation to temperature by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Penn State University, Scranton, Biology. Penn State University, Scranton, Biology. 2008 .

Koide RT. USDA – ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit. USDA – ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit. 2008 .

Sharda JN, Koide RT. American Society of Plant Biologists Annual Meeting. Chicago, IL. 2007 .

Koide RT. Community ecology of mycorrhizal fungi. Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania. University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology. 2007 .

Koide RT. Community ecology of mycorrhizal fungi. Fordham University, Department of Biology. Fordham University, Department of Biology. 2007 .

Malcolm GM, López-Gutiérrez JC, Koide RT, Eissenstat DM. Respiration acclimation and adaptation to temperature by ECM fungi. MEEC (Midwest Ecology & Evolution Conference). Kent State University, Kent, Ohio. 2007 .

Koide RT. Community ecology of mycorrhizal fungi. West Virginia University, Department of Biology. West Virginia University, Department of Biology. 2007 .

Malcolm GM, Koide RT. Adaptation and acclimation to temperature by ectomycorrhizal fungi. International Conference on Mycorrhiza. Granada, Spain. 2006 Aug.

Koide RT. Structuring of mycorrhizal fungal communities. 8th International Mycological Congress. Cairns, Australia. 2006 .

Malcom GM, Koide RT. Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America. Memphis, TN. 2006 .

Koide RT. Community ecology of mycorrhizal fungi. Brigham Young University, Department of Microbiology. Brigham Young University, Department of Microbiology. 2006 .

Lekberg Y, Koide RT. Effect of management practices on AMF activity in the semi-arid tropics - comparisons with temperate mesic agroecosystems. International Conference on Mycorrhiza. Granada, Spain. 2006 .

Falik O, Barto N, Adams T, Koide RT, Eissenstat DM. Acclimation of root respiration to temperature among plants species from broad latitudinal gradients. Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America. Montreal, Canada. 2005 .

Malcom G, Lopez Guitierrez JC, Koide RT, Eissenstat D. Temperature acclimation by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America. Montreal, Canada. 2005 .

Besmer YL, Koide RT, Rohr J, Aldrich-Wolfe L, Morton J. Fundamental and realized niche differentiation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae. Annual Meeting, Soil Ecology Society meeting. Chicago, IL. 2005 .

Koide RT. Temporal and spatial partitioning of mycorrhizal fungal communities. Joint meeting, Mycological Society of America / Mycological Society of Japan. Hilo, HI. 2005 .

Koide RT. Structuring of mycorrhizal fungal communities. Northern Arizona University, Department of Biology. Northern Arizona University, Department of Biology. 2005 .

Koide RT. Controls of diversity of mycorrhizal fungi. Hofstra University, Department of Biology. Hofstra University, Department of Biology, Hempstead, NY. 2004 .

Koide RT. Recent explorations of the community ecology of mycorrhizal fungi. Shanghai Jiao Tong University, College of Life Sciences and Technology. Shanghai, China. 2004 .

Koide RT. Recent explorations of the community ecology of mycorrhizal fungi. Zhejiang University, College of Life Sciences. Hangzhou, China. 2004 .

Koide RT. Recent explorations of the community ecology of mycorrhizal fungi. Zhong Shan University, College of Life Science. Guangzhou, China. 2004 .

Xu B, Sharda JN, Koide RT. A comparison of ECM fungal communities based on root tips and soil hyphae. International Conference on Mycorrhiza IV. Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 2003 .

Jonsson L, Dighton J, Lussenhop J, Koide RT. Effect of Ground Leaf Litter from Various Plant Species on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities on Pinus rigida Seedlings. International Conference on Mycorrhiza IV. Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 2003 .

Besmer YL, Koide RT, Twomlow SJ. Effect of management practices on AMF activity in the semi-arid tropics – comparisons with temperate mesic agroecosystems. International Conference on Mycorrhiza IV. Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 2003 .

Wu T, Sharda JN, Koide RT. Interactions between saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungi. International Conference on Mycorrhiza IV. Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 2003 .

Besmer YL, Koide RT, Twomlow SJ. Unknown. Soil Ecology Society meeting. Palm Springs, CA. 2003 .

Kaneko N, Ito TM, Toyota A, Hashimoto M, Koide RT. Unknown. Soil Ecology Society meeting. Palm Springs, CA. 2003 .

Xu B, Sharda JN, Koide RT. Unknown. Soil Ecology Society meeting. Palm Springs, CA. 2003 .

Koide RT. Interactions between saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Université Paul Sabatier, Equipe de MYCOLOGIE VEGETALE. France. 2003 .

Koide RT. Interactions between saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Wageningen University, Department of Soil Quality. Wageningen, Netherlands. 2003 .

Jonsson LM, Dighton J, Koide RT, Lussenhop J. Unknown. Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America. Tucson, AZ. 2002 .

Besmer YK, Koide RT, Meyers RJ. Unknown. Ecological Society of American Annual Meeting. Tucson, AZ. 2002 .

Besmer YL, Koide RT, Twomlow SJ. ROLE OF PHOSPHORUS AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON NODULATION AND SHOOT NITROGEN CONTENT IN GROUNDNUT AND LABLAB BEAN. Fertility in Southern Africa Conference. Zimbabwe. 2002 .

Koide RT. Ecology of mycorrhizal fungi. Graduate Program in Ecology, Penn State University. Graduate Program in Ecology, Penn State University. 2002 .

Koide RT. Interactions between mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. Nagoya University, Department of Crop Science. Nagoya University, Department of Crop Science. 2002 .

Koide RT. Keynote address: Past progress and future perspective in AM research in Europe. AM Research in Europe - the Dawning of a Millenium, Meeting of COST 8.38. The Dawning of a Millenium, Annual Meeting of COST Action 8.38. Pisa, Italy. 2002 .

Koide RT. Physiological ecology of mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal plants. USDA - Eastern Regional Research Center. Wyndmoor, PA. 2002 .

Koide RT. Ecology of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Yokohama National University, Department of Soil Ecology. Yokohama, Japan. 2002 .

Jonsson L, Dighton J, Koide RT, Lussenhop J. Unknown. Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin. 2001 .

Jonsson L, Dighton J, Koide RT, Lussenhop J. Unknown. Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin. 2001 .

Besmer Y, Koide RT. Abundance of rhizobia and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in semi-arid Zimbabwe and the effect of phosphorus on nodulation. Annual Meeting, Soil Ecology Society. Calloway Gardens, Georgia. 2001 .

Wu T, Koide RT. Interactions between saprotrophic microbes and ectomycorrhizal fungi in the N nutrition of red pine. Annual Meeting, Soil Ecology Society. Calloway Gardens, Georgia. 2001 .

Dickie I, Koide RT. Vertical niche differentiation of ectomycorrhizal hyphae in soil as shown by T-RFLP analysis. Annual Meeting, Soil Ecology Society. Calloway Gardens, Georgia. 2001 .

Dickie I, Koide RT, Steiner K. Unknown. Ecological Society of American Annual Meeting. Madison, Wisconsin. 2001 .

Nakano A, Takahashi K, Koide RT, Kimura M. Unknown. International Conference on Mycorrhiza III. Adelaide, Australia. 2001 .

Besmer Y, Koide RT. Unknown. International Conference on Mycorrhiza III. Adelaide, Australia. 2001 .

Koide RT, Dickie I. Unknown. International Conference on Mycorrhiza III. Adelaide, Australia. 2001 .

Koide RT, Wu T. Interactions between saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Meeting, International Society for Root Research. Nagoya, Japan. 2001 .

Koide RT. University of Illinois, Chicago, Department of Biological Sciences. University of Illinois, Chicago, Department of Biological Sciences. 2001 .

Fayish A, Dickie I, Steiner K, Koide RT. VA mycorrhizal fungi of oaks. Undergraduate and Graduate Student Research Exhibition. College of Agricultural Sciences, Penn State University. 2000 Mar.

Koide RT. Sustainable Management of Soil Organic Matter. Edinburgh, Scotland. 1999 Sep.

Lekberg Y, Koide RT. Unknown. International Conference on Mycorrhiza. Uppsala, Sweden. 1998 Jul.

Koide RT. Ecological considerations of mycorrhizal symbioses. 12th Annual Symposium in Plant Physiology, Phosphorus in Plant Biology. Pennsylvania State University. 1998 .

Koide RT. Practical applications of mycorrhizal fungi. Consortium of Japanese Mycorrhiza Inoculum Producers. Tokyo, Japan. 1998 .

Koide RT. Ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. Japanese Conference on Mycorrhiza. Nishinasuno, Tochigi, Japan. 1998 .

Koide RT. Ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. Nagoya University, Department of Crop Science. Nagoya, Japan. 1998 .

Koide RT. Ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. National Grassland Research Institute, Department of Ecology. Nishinasuno, Tochigi, Japan. 1998 .

Koide RT. Ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Rutgers University, Department of Biology and Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences. Rutgers University, Department of Biology and Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences. 1998 .

Koide RT. Ecophysiology of mycorrhizal roots. 11th Annual Symposium in Plant Physiology, Radical Biology. The Pennsylvania State University. 1997 .

Koide RT. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant fitness. Mycological Society of America annual meeting. University of Montreal. 1997 .

Koide RT. Tree-fungus interactions in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Phytochemical Society of North America and Phytochemical Society of Europe. Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands. 1997 .

Koide RT. Population biology of plants colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University. Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University. 1996 Mar.

Koide RT. Population biology of plants colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Department of Integrative Biology, University of California. Berkeley, CA. 1996 Mar.

Koide RT. Ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Ohio State University, Department of Plant Science. Ohio State University, Department of Plant Science. 1996 .

Koide RT. Control of development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Premier Tech Conference on Mycorrhiza. Premier, Riviere-du-Loup, Quebec. 1996 .

Koide RT. The effects of mycorrhizal infection on components of plant growth and reproduction. Soil Ecology Society meeting. Colorado State University. 1995 .

Koide RT. Population biology of plants colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. University of Guelph, Department of Botany. Guelph, Ontario, Canada. 1995 .

Koide RT. Mycorrhizal fungi and plant reproduction. Lycoming College, Department of Biological Sciences. Lycoming College, Department of Biological Sciences. 1994 .

Koide RT. Mycorrhizal fungi and plant reproduction. Rutgers University, Department of Biology. Rutgers University, Department of Biology. 1994 .

Koide RT. Development of mycorrhizal fungi. Ninth North American Conference on Mycorrhiza, University of Guelph. Guelph, Ontario, Canada. 1993 .

Koide RT. The ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. University of Adelaide, Department of Botany. Adelaide, South Australia. 1993 .

Koide RT. The ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Department of Agriculture. Queensland, Australia. 1993 .

Koide RT. The ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Department of Botany. Queensland, Australia. 1993 .

Koide RT. The ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. University of Sydney, School of Biology. Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. 1993 .

Koide RT. The ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. University of Western Australia, Department of Soils and Plant Nutrition. Nedlands, Western Australia. 1993 .

Koide RT. The ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. Waite Agricultural Research Institute. Glen Osmond, South Australia. 1993 .

Koide RT. Nutrient transport in mycorrhizas: structure, physiology and consequences for efficiency of the symbiosis. International Symposium on Management of Mycorrhizas in Agriculture, Horticulture and Forestry. Perth, Western Australia. 1992 .

Koide RT. Ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Department of Biology. Las Vegas, Nevada. 1992 .

Koide RT. Ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. Utah State University, Department of Range Science. Logan, UT. 1992 .

Koide RT. Effect of mycorrhizal colonization on plant offspring vigor. Ecological Society of American Annual Meeting. San Antonio, Texas. 1991 .

Koide RT. Effect of mycorrhizal colonization on plant offspring vigor. Lebanon Valley College, Department of Biology. Annville, PA. 1991 .

Koide RT. Effect of mycorrhizal colonization on plant fitness. The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Agronomy (Soils group). The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Agronomy (Soils group). 1991 .

Koide RT. The ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Biology. The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Biology. 1991 .

Koide RT. Effect of mycorrhizal colonization on plant fitness. The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Plant Pathology. The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Plant Pathology. 1991 .

Koide RT. Mycorrhizal infection of wild oats: parental effects on offspring nutrient dynamics, growth and reproduction. Third European Symposium on Mycorrhizas. Sheffield, England. 1991 .

Koide RT. The effects of mycorrhizal infection on components of plant growth and reproduction. University of Arizona, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. University of Arizona, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. 1991 .

Koide RT. The effects of mycorrhizal infection on components of plant growth and reproduction. USDA Appalachian Soil and Water Conservation Research Laboratory. Beckley, WV. 1991 .

Koide RT. The effects of mycorrhizal infection on components of plant growth and reproduction. USDA ARS, Eastern Regional Research Laboratory. Wyndmoor, PA. 1991 .

Koide RT. Ecological Society of America annual meeting. Snowbird, Utah. 1990 .

Koide RT. Effect of mycorrhizal fungi on plant reproduction. Eighth North American Conference on Mycorrhiza. Jackson Hole, WY. 1990 .

Koide RT. Regulation of the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Eighth North American Conference on Mycorrhiza. Jackson Hole, WY. 1990 .

Koide RT. Ecology of mycorrhizal symbioses. The Pennsylvania State University, Program in Ecology. The Pennsylvania State University. 1990 .

Koide RT. Effect of VA mycorrhizal infection on plant growth and reproduction. Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America. University of Toronto. 1989 .

Koide RT. Effect of VA mycorrhizal infection on oldfield annual plant species. Ecological Society of America annual meeting. University of California, Davis. 1988 .

Koide RT. Are VA mycorrhizal fungi plant pathogens?. The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Plant Pathology. The Pennsylvania State University. 1988 .

Koide RT. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth and reproduction. University of Georgia, Department of Botany. University of Georgia, Athens, GA. 1988 .

Koide RT. Effect of VA mycorrhizal fungi on plant water relations. American Society of Plant Physiologists Annual Meeting. University of California, Davis. 1984 .

Koide RT. Effect of VA mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth and water relations. Harvard University, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge, MA. 1984 .

Koide RT. Effect of VA mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth and water relations. University of California,Berkeley, Department of Botany. Berkeley, CA. 1984 .

Koide RT. Effect of VA mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth and water relations. University of Missouri, St. Louis. Department of Biology. University of Missouri, St. Louis. Department of Biology. 1984 .

Koide RT. Effect of VA mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth and water relations. University of Utah, Department of Biology. University of Utah, Department of Biology. 1984 .