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Paul Reynolds

Physiology & Developmental Biology

3054 LSB
Provo, UT 84602

Research Interests

Members of the Cell and Developmental Biology Subgroup focus on the molecular and cellular interactions that contribute to embryonic development and the most common and debilitating disease conditions.

The Reynolds lab specifically focuses on the developmental role of autocrine/paracrine signaling in the lung during branching morphogenesis, pulmonary remodeling induced by interactions between mesenchymal/epithelial compartments, and mechanisms of pulmonary injury and disease related to environmental tobacco or oxidative stress.


  • Visiting Scientist, Department of Inner Medicine, University Hospitals and Clinics, University of Heidelberg, 2013
  • Post-Doctoral Fellow, Internal Medicine: Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, 2007
  • PhD, Developmental and Molecular Biology: Pulmonary, University of Cincinnati: Cincinnati Children's Research Hospital, 2004
  • MS, Zoology:Teratology, Brigham Young University, 2001
  • BS, Zoology:Human Biology, Brigham Young University, 1999


  • American Association for Dental Research, 2015-Present
  • The American Society for Integrative Pathology, 2015-Present
  • The American Physiological Society, 2007-Present
  • Society for Developmental Biologists, 2005-Present
  • The American Thoracic Society, 2002-Present

Honors & Awards

  • Brigham Young University : Ferrin L. Orton Teaching and Learning Faculty Fellowship
  • Brigham Young University, College of Life Sciences : Outstanding Teaching Award
  • International Physiology Committee and the Council of the American Physiological Society : APS-TPS Joint Meeting Award
  • American Physiological Society : American Physiological Society Research Career Enhancement Award
  • Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology : Department Distinguished Faculty Award
  • American Physiological Society : American Physiology Minority Fellowship Award Mentor
  • American Society of Reproductive Immunology : CyPlex Systems American Society of Reproductive Immunology Grant
  • The American Physiological Society : The American Physiological Society Research Career Enhancement Award
  • International Union of Physiological Sciences Congress : International Travel Presentation Award
  • The American Physiological Society : Respiratory Section New Investigator Award
  • NIH: National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute : National Institutes of Health LRP Award: NHLBI Extramural Clinical Researcher
  • The American Physiological Society : The American Physiological Society Research Career Enhancement Award
  • Parker B. Francis Foundation : Parker B. Francis Fellowship in Pulmonary Research

Courses Taught

Winter 2019

  • PDBIO 295R: Introductory Undgrad Research Section 011
  • PDBIO 325: Tissue Biology (with lab) Section 001, 002, 003, 004, 005
  • PDBIO 349R: PDBio Teaching Experience Section 013
  • PDBIO 450R: Readings & Discussion in PDBio Section 011
  • PDBIO 495R: Adv Undergraduate Research Section 011
  • PDBIO 498: Advanced Senior Research Section 002
  • PDBIO 799R: Dissertation Section 011

Fall 2018

  • PDBIO 325: Tissue Biology (with lab) Section 001, 002, 003, 004, 005
  • PDBIO 349R: PDBio Teaching Experience Section 013
  • PDBIO 450R: Readings & Discussion in PDBio Section 011
  • PDBIO 484: Human Embryology Section 001
  • PDBIO 495R: Adv Undergraduate Research Section 011
  • PDBIO 601: Cell & Molecular Physiology Section 001
  • PDBIO 649R: Laboratory Research Section 011
  • PDBIO 689R: Practicum LfSci Tchg or Resrch Section 001

Summer 2018

  • PDBIO 495R: Adv Undgraduate Research Section 011

Spring 2018

  • PDBIO 495R: Adv Undgraduate Research Section 011


Journal Articles

Poornejad N, Momtahan N, Salehi AS, Scott D, Fronk C, Roeder BL, Reynolds PR, Bundy B, Cook AD. 2018. Corrigendum: Efficient Decellularization of whole porcine kidneys improves reseeded cell behavior. Biomed Mater.

Chapman S, Mick M, Hall P, Mejia C, Sue S, Wase BA, Nguyen MA, Whisenant EC, Wilcox SH, Winden DR, et al. 2018. Cigarette smoke extract induces oral squamous cell carcinoma cell invasion in a receptor for advanced glycation end-product-dependent manner. Eur J Oral Sci. 126(1):33-40.

Hirschi KM, Chapman S, Hall P, Ostergar A, Winden D, Reynolds PR, Arroyo JA. 2018. Gas6 protein induces invasion and reduces inflammatory cytokines in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. J Oral Pathol Med.

Lewis JB, Bodine JS, Gassman JR, Munoz SA, Milner DC, Dunaway DM, Egbert KM, Monson TD, Broberg DS, Arroyo JA, et al. 2018. Transgenic up-regulation of Claudin-6 decreases fine diesel particulate matter (DPM)-induced pulmonary inflammation. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 25(18):18179-88.

Lewis JB, Jimenez FR, Merrell BJ, Kimbler B, Arroyo JA, Reynolds PR. 2018. The expression profile of Claudin family members in the developing mouse lung and expression alterations resulting from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Exp Lung Res. 44(1):13-24.

Lewis JB, Mejia C, Jordan C, Monson TD, Bodine JS, Dunaway TM, Egbert KM, Lewis AL, Wright TJ, Ogden KC, et al. 2017. Inhibition of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) protects from secondhand smoke (SHS)-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in mice. Cell Tissue Research.

Kumar V, Fleming T, Terjung S, Gorzelanny C, Gebhardt C, Agrawal R, Mall MA, Ranzinger J, Zeier M, Madhusudhan T, et al. 2017. Homeostatic nuclear RAGE-ATM interaction is essential for efficient DNA repair. Nuc Acid Res.

Poornejad N, Buckmiller E, Schaumann L, Wang H, Wisco JJ, Roeder BL, Reynolds PR, Cook AD. 2017. Re-epithelialization of whole porcine kidneys with renal epithelial cells. J Tissue Eng. 8:1-22.

Taylor OJ, Thatcher MO, Carr ST, Gibbs JL, Trumbull AM, Harrison ME, Winden DR, Pearson MJ, Tippetts TS, Holland WL, et al. 2017. High-Mobility Group Box 1 Disrupts Metabolic Function with Cigarette Smoke Exposure in a Ceramide-Dependent Manner. 18(5).

Napa K, Baeder AC, Witt JE, Rayburn ST, Miller MG, Dallon BW, Gibbs JL, Wilcox SH, Winden DR, Smith JH, et al. 2017. LPS from P. gingivalis Negatively Alters Gingival Cell Mitochondrial Bioenergetics. 2017(2697210).

Monson T, Wright T, Galan HL, Reynolds PR, Arroyo JA. 2017. Caspase dependent and independent mechanisms of apoptosis across gestation in a sheep model of placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction. Apoptosis. 22(5):710-718.

Black CS, Creapeau PK, Sheffiend ID, MacDonald JR, Wooton DJ, Maek M, Eggett DL, Reynolds PR, Kooyman DL. 2017. Identification of the tidemark line of calcification in osteoarthritic cartilage using a stain for alkaline phosphatase. J Arthritis. 6:230.

Sanders NT, Dutson DJ, Durrant JW, Lewis JB, Wilcox SH, Winden DR, Arroyo JA, Bikman BT, Reynolds PR. 2017. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces RAGE-mediated inflammation in the Ca9-22 gingival carcinoma epithelial cell line. 80:95-100.

Lewis JB, Hirschi KM, Arroyo JA, Bikman BT, Kooyman DL, Reynolds PR. 2017. Plausible Roles for RAGE in Conditions Exacerbated by Direct and Indirect (Secondhand) Smoke Exposure. Int J Mol Sci. 18(3):E652.

Jimenez JR, Lewis JB, Belgique ST, Milner DC, Lewis AL, Dunaway TM, Egbert KM, Winden DR, Arroyo JA, Reynolds PR. 2016. Cigarette smoke and decreased oxygen tension inhibit pulmonary Claudin-6 expression. Exp Lung Res. 16:1-13.

Lewis JB, Milner DC, Lewis AL, Dunaway DM, Egbert KM, Albright SC, Albright BJ, Merrell BJ, Monson TD, Broberg DS, et al. 2016. Up-regulation of Claudin-6 in the distal lung impacts secondhand smoke-induced inflammation. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 13(1018).

Mejia C, Lewis J, Jordan C, Mejia J, Ogden C, Monson T, Winden D, Reynolds PR, Arroyo JA. 2016. Decreased activation of placental mTOR family members is associated with the induction of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) by secondhand smoke (SHS) in the mouse. Cell Tissue Research. 367(2):387-395.

Long E, Motwani R, Reece D, Pettie N, Hepworth J, Wong P, Reynolds PR, Seegmiller RE. 2016. The role of TGF-b1 in osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint in two genetic mouse models. Archives of Oral Biology. 67:68-73.

Chavez EM, Mecham DK, Black CS, Graf JW, Steel SD, Wilhelm SK, Andersen KM, Mitchell JA, Macdonald JR, Hollis WR, et al. 2016. Malocclusion Model of Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthritis in Mice With and Without Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products. Archives of Oral Biology. 69:47-62.

Poornejad N, Momtahan N, Salehi AS, Scott D, Fronk C, Roeder BL, Reynolds PR, Bundy BC, Cook AD. 2016. Efficient decellularization of whole procine kidneys improves reseeded behavior. Biomedical Materials. 11(2):025003.

Alexander KL, Mejia CA, Jordan C, Nelson MB, Howell BM, Jones CM, Reynolds PR, Arroyo JA. 2016. Differential Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products (RAGE) Expression in Preeclamptic, Intrauterine Growth Restricted, and Gestational Diabetic Placentas Running Title: Different RAGE expression in pathological pregnancies. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 72(2):172-180.

Baeder AC, Napa K, Richardson ST, Taylor OJ, Andersen SG, Wilcox SH, Winden DR, Reynolds PR, Bikman BT. 2016. Oral Gingival Cell Cigarette Smoke Exposure Induces Muscle Cell Metabolic Disruption. 2016:2763160.

Poornejad N, Schaumann LB, Buckmiller EM, Momtahan N, Gassman JR, Ma HH, Roeder BL, Reynolds PR, Cook AD. 2016. The impact of decellularization agents on renal tissue extracellular matrix. J. Biomater. Appl. 31(4):521-533.

Kimball R, Wayment M, Merrill D, Wahlquist T, Reynolds PR, Arroyo JA. 2015. Hypoxia reduces placental mTOR activation in a hypoxia-induced model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Physiological Reports. 3(12).

Poornejad N, Nielsen JJ, Morris RJ, Gassman JR, Reynolds PR, Roeder BL, Cook AD. 2015. Comparison of four decontamination treatments on porcine renal decellularized extracellular matrix structure, composition, and support of human renal cortical tubular epithelium cells. J Biomater Appl.

Siebert M, Wilhelm SK, Kartchner JZ, Mecham D, Reynolds PR, Kooyman DL. 2015. Effect of Pharmacological Blocking of TLR-4 on Osteoarthritis in Mice. Journal of Arthritis. 4(3).

Olsen DS, Goar WA, Nichols BA, Bailey KT, Christensen SL, Merriam KR, Reynolds PR, Wilson E, Weber KS, Bridgewater LC. 2015. Targeted mutation of nuclear bone morphogenetic protein 2 (nBMP2) impairs secondary immune response in a mouse model. BioMed Research International.

Jimenez FR, Belgique ST, Lewis JB, Albright SA, Jones CM, Howell BM, Mika AP, Jergensen TR, Gassman JR, Morris RJ, et al. 2015. Conditional pulmonary over-expression of Claudin-6 (Cldn6) during embryogenesis delays lung morphogenesis. International Journal of Developmental Biology.

Momtahan N, Poornejad N, Struk JA, Castleton AA, Herrod BJ, Vance BR, Eatough J, Roeder BL, Reynolds PR, Cook AD. 2015. Automation of pressure control improves whole porcine heart decellularization. Tissue Engineering.

Nelson MB, Swensen AC, Winden DR, Bodine JS, Bikman BT, Reynolds PR. 2015. Cardiomyocyte mitochondrial respiration is reduced by receptor for advanced glycation end-product signaling in a ceramide-dependent manner. American Journal of Physiology - Heart Circ Physiol. 309:H63-H69.

Poornejad N, Frost TS, Scott DR, Elton BB, Reynolds PR, Roeder BL, Cook AD. 2015. Freezing/thawing without cryoprotectant damages native but not decellularized porcine renal tissue. Organogenesis. :30-45.

Tippetts TS, Winden DR, Swensen AC, Nelson MB, Thatcher MO, Saito RR, Condie TB, Simmons KJ, Judd AM, Reynolds PR, et al. 2014. Cigarette smoke increases cardiomyocyte ceramide accumulation and inhibits mitochondrial respiration. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 14(1):165.

Thatcher MO, Tippetts TS, Nelson MB, Swensen AC, Winden DR, Hansen ME, Anderson MC, Johnson IE, Porter JP, Reynolds PR, et al. 2014. Ceramides mediate cigarette smoke-induced metabolic disruption in mice. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism. 307:E919-E927.

Winden DR, Barton DB, Betteridge BC, Bodine JS, Jones CM, Rogers GD, Chavarria M, Wright AJ, Jergensen Zr, Jimenez FR, et al. 2014. Antenatal exposure of maternal secondhand smoke (SHS) increases fetal lung expression of RAGE and induces RAGE-mediated pulmonary inflammation. Respir Res. 15(1):129.

Bodine Bg, Bennion BG, Leatham e, Jimenez FR, Wright AJ, Jergensen ZR, Erickson CJ, Jones CM, Johnson JP, Knapp SM, et al. 2014. Conditionally induced RAGE expression by proximal airway epithelial cells in transgenic mice causes lung inflammation. Respir Res. 15(1):133.

Wood TT, Winden DR, Marlor DR, Wright AJ, Jones CM, Chavarria M, Rogers GD, Reynolds PR. 2014. Acute secondhand smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation is diminished in RAGE knock out mice. AJP: Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 307(10):E919-27.

Jimenez FR, Lewis BL, Belgique ST, Wood TT, Reynolds PR. 2014. Developmental lung expression and transcriptional regulation of Claudin-6 by TTF-1, Gata-6, and FoxA2. Respiratory Research. 15(1):70.

Barton DB, Betteridge BC, Earley TD, Curtis CS, Robinson AB, Reynolds PR. 2014. Primary alveolar macrophages exposed to diesel particulate matter increase RAGE expression and activate RAGE signaling. Cell Tissue Research. EPub ahead of print.

Winden DR, Ferguson NT, Bodine BG, Bukey BR, Geyer AJ, Wright AJ, Jergensen ZR, Robinson AB, Stogsdill JA, Reynolds PR. 2013. Conditional over-expression of RAGE by embryonic alveolar epithelium compromises the respiratory membrane and impairs endothelial cell differentiation. Respiratory Research. 14(1):108.

Stogsdill MP, Stogsdill JA, Bodine BG, Fredrickson AC, Sefcik TL, Wood TA, Kasteler SS, Reynolds PR. 2013. Conditional RAGE over expression in the adult murine lung causes airspace enlargement and induces inflammation. Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol. 49(1):128-134.

Ricks ML, Farrell JT, Falk DJ, Holt DW, Rees M, Carr J, Williams T, Nichols BA, Bridgewater LC, Reynolds PR, et al. 2013. Osteoarthritis in Temporomandibular Joint of Col2a1 Mutant Mice. Archives of Oral Biology. 58(9):1092-9.

Winden DR, Ferguson NT, Bukey BR, Geyer AJ, Wright AJ, Jergensen ZR, Robinson AB, Stogsdill JA, Reynolds PR. 2013. Conditional over-expression of RAGE by embryonic alveolar epithelium compromises the respiratory membrane and impairs endothelial cell differentiation. Respiratory Research. 14(1):108-115.

Robinson AB, Stogsdill JA, Lewis JP, Wood TA, Reynolds PR. 2012. RAGE and tobacco smoke: Insights into modeling Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Frontiers in Respiratory Physiology. 3(301):1-11.

Robinson AB, Dickson KD, Bennion BG, Reynolds PR. 2012. RAGE signaling by alveolar macrophages influences tobacco smoke-induced inflammation. American Journal of Physiology: Lung Cell Molecular Physiology. 303:L1192-1199.

Stogsdill JA, Stogsdill MP, Porter JL, Hancock JM, Robinson AB, Reynolds PR. 2012. Embryonic over-expression of RAGE by alveolar epithelium induces an imbalance between proliferation and apoptosis. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. 47(1):60-66.

Reynolds PR, Stogsdill JA, Stogsdill MM, Heimann NB. 2011. Conditional Up-regulation of Receptors for Advanced glycation End-Products (RAGE) in Murine Alveolar Epithelium Causes Severe Lung Hypoplasia and Perninatal Lethality. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. 45(6):1195-202.

Bukey BR, Geyer AJ, Porter JL, Reynolds PR. 2011. Immunohistochemical detection and regulation of alpha 5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits by FoxA2 during mouse lung organogenesis. Respiratory Research. 12(1):11 pages.

Reynolds PR, Allison CH, Willnauer CP. 2010. TTF-1 Regulates Alpha 5 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Subunits in Proximal and Distal Lung Epithelium. Resp Research. 11(175).

Reynolds PR, Wasley KM, Allison CH. 2010. Diesel Particulate Matter Induces RAGE Expression in Pulmonary Epithelium and RAGE Signaling Influences NF-κB-Mediated Inflammation. Env Health Pers. 119(3):332-336.

Reynolds PR, Kasteler SD, Schmitt RE, Hoidal JR. 2010. RAGE Signals Through Ras During Tobacco Smoke-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation. Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol.

Rao NV, Argyle B, Xu Z, Reynolds PR, Walenga JM, Prechel M, Prestwich GD, Hoidal JR, Kennedy TP. 2010. Low Anticoagulant Heparin Targets Multiple Sites in Inflammation, Suppresses Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia and Inhibits Interaction of RAGE with its Disparate Ligands. AJP: Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 1(299):97-110.

Reynolds PR, Schmitt RE, Kasteler SD, Sturrock A, Sanders K, Bierhaus A, Nawroth PP, Robert Paine JH. 2009. RAGE Targeting Protects Against Hyperoxia-Induced Lung Injury in Mice. Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol. 5(42):545-551.

Reynolds PR, Kasteler SD, Cosio MG, Sturrock A, Huecksteadt T, Hoidal JR. 2008. RAGE: Developmental Expression and Positive Feedback Regulation by Egr-1 During Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Pulmonary Epithelial Cells. American Journal of Physiology: Lung Cell and Molecular Biology. 6:1094-101.

Reynolds PR, Hoidal JR. 2006. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Egr-1 Upregulates Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Pulmonary Epithelial Cells. Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol. 35:314-9.

Mukherjee TP, Reynolds PR, Hoidal JR. 2005. Differential Effect of Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Beta Agonists on the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product Expression in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1745:300-9.

Reynolds PR, Hoidal JR. 2005. Temporal-Spatial Expression and Transcriptional Regulation of ?7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) by TTF-1 and Egr-1 During Murine Lung Development. J Biol Chem. 280:32548-54.

Reynolds PR, Mucenski ML, LeCras TD, Nichols WC, Whitsett. JA. 2004. Midkine (MK) induces myocardin during hypoxia and causes pulmonary vascular remodeling. J Biol Chem. 279:37124-32.

Reynolds PR, Schaalje GB, Seegmiller RE. 2003. Combination Therapy with Folic Acid and Methionine in the Prevention of Retinoic Acid-Induced Cleft Palate in Mice. Birth Defects Research. 67:168-173.

Reynolds PR, Mucenski ML, Whitsett JA. 2003. Thyroid Transcription Factor (TTF)-1 Regulates the expression of Midkine (MK) During Lung Morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 227:227-237.

Hansen JM, Reynolds PR, Booth GM, Schaalje GB, Seegmiller RE. 2000. Developmental toxicity of carbon black oil in mice. 62(4):227-32.

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